This starter kit is amazing and affordable (get your kit for ONLY $1 here for a limited time) for anyone who wants to get into Arduino. It has everything you need to get started without the clutter or price of more advanced components that may be overwhelming. It is perfect to get familiar with using and coding the Arduino. A starter kit is the go-to for getting into Arduino with everything you need to learn the basics.
Arduino Uno R3
The Arduino Uno is the best starting board that is also the most documented. It was the company’s first board and continues to be the most popular. It is generally considered the most user-friendly board and is the reference model for the entire Arduino platform. The Uno R3 has 14 digital input/output pins. These pins can be used for things like indicating when a button is pushed or powering a servo with 6 of them being PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) pins. PWM pins (noted with a ~ besides the pin number) can be used like the other digital pins but they have the ability to simulate analog output. For example, they can be used to fade an LED in and out. The Uno R3 also has 6 analog inputs which can be used for thing like reading a signal from an analog sensor and converting it to a digital value. The Uno R3 also has a USB connection, a power jack, reset button, and an ICSP (In Circuit Serial Programmer) header. The ICSP header controls serial communication between a device and microcontroller; it is used to update the firmware or reinstall a Boot-loader.
The electrical resistance of an object/material is a measure of difficulty to pass a current through that object/material and is measured in ohms. A circuit with higher resistance will allow less charge to flow, meaning, it will have less current flowing through it. Resistors are used in circuits to control the flow of current to other components. For example, if too much current flows into an LED it will burn out and become destroyed; a resistor is used to lower the amount of current entering the LED preventing it from being broken.
Sequential LED Lighting Project
This is a great beginner project as it is fun and not too complicated. The final result is 3 LEDs lighting up one after another and then turning off in the reverse order. I used red, green, and yellow for the 3 LEDs. First, the red LED lights up, then the green one, then the yellow one; all
with a 200ms delay in between. Next, the yellow turns off, then the green one, then the red one; again with a 200ms delay in between each LED. This process repeats over and over again.
For this project, you will need 3 LEDs, 3 220 or 330-ohm resistors, 4 wires, and an Arduino Uno. I connected the ground (GND) output from the Arduino to the common negative bus on the breadboard. I connected each cathode (negative) side of all the LEDs to the negative bus terminal on the breadboard and each anode (positive) side of all the LEDs to a line on the breadboard. Each line was connected to the other side of the breadboard with a resistor. Each resistor was connected to a different output pin on the Arduino; in this case, it was 2, 3, and 4. I used pin 2 as red, pin 3 as green, and pin 4 as yellow.